CS1251        COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE                    3  1  0  100

    To discuss the basic structure of a digital computer and to study in detail the organization of the Control unit, the Arithmetic and Logical unit, the Memory unit and the I/O unit.

•    To have a thorough understanding of the basic structure and operation of a digital computer.
•    To discuss in detail the operation of the arithmetic unit including the algorithms & implementation of fixed-point and floating-point addition, subtraction, multiplication & division.
•    To study in detail the different types of control and the concept of pipelining.
•    To study the hierarchical memory system including cache memories and virtual memory.
•    To study the different ways of communicating with I/O devices and standard I/O interfaces.

UNIT I        BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS                    10
Functional units - Basic operational concepts - Bus structures -
Software performance – Memory locations and addresses – Memory operations – Instruction and instruction sequencing – Addressing modes – Assembly language – Basic I/O operations – Stacks and queues.

UNIT II        ARITHMETIC UNIT                            8
Addition and subtraction of signed numbers – Design of fast adders – Multiplication of positive numbers - Signed operand multiplication and fast multiplication – Integer division – Floating point numbers and operations.

UNIT III    BASIC PROCESSING UNIT                        9
Fundamental concepts – Execution of a complete instruction – Multiple bus organization – Hardwired control – Microprogrammed control - Pipelining – Basic concepts – Data hazards – Instruction hazards – Influence on Instruction sets – Data path and control consideration – Superscalar operation.

UNIT IV    MEMORY SYSTEM                            9
Basic concepts – Semiconductor RAMs - ROMs – Speed - size and cost – Cache memories - Performance consideration – Virtual memory- Memory Management requirements – Secondary storage.

UNIT V        I/O ORGANIZATION                            9   
Accessing I/O devices – Interrupts – Direct Memory Access – Buses – Interface circuits – Standard I/O Interfaces (PCI, SCSI, USB).

TUTORIAL                                         15       
TOTAL : 60
1.    Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, 5th Edition “Computer Organization”, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

1.    William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for Performance”, 6th Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
2.    David A.Patterson and John L.Hennessy, “Computer Organization and Design: The hardware / software interface”, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
3.    John P.Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organization”, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
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