**CE1254 SURVEYING II 3 0 0 100**

**OBJECTIVE**

At the end of the course the student will posses knowledge about Tachometric surveying, Control surveying, Survey adjustments, Astronomical surveying and Photogrametry.

**1. TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING 6**

Tacheometric systems - Tangential, stadia and subtense methods - Stadia systems - Horizontal and inclined sights - Vertical and normal staffing - Fixed and movable hairs - Stadia constants - Anallactic lens - Subtense bar.

**2. CONTROL SURVEYING 8**

Working from whole to part - Horizontal and vertical control methods - Triangulation - Signals - Base line - Instruments and accessores - Corrections - Satellite station - Reduction to centre - Trignometric levelling - Single and reciprocal observations - Modern trends – Bench marking

**3. SURVEY ADJUSTMENTS 8**

Errors - Sources, precautions and corrections - Classification of errors - True and most probable values - weighted observations - Method of equal shifts - Principle of least squares - Normal equation - Correlates - Level nets - Adjustment of simple triangulation networks.

**4. ASTRONOMICAL SURVEYING 11**

Celestial sphere - Astronomical terms and definitions - Motion of sun and stars - Apparent altitude and corrections - Celestial co-ordinate systems - Different time systems - Nautical almanac - Star constellations - Practical astronomy - Field observations and calculations for azimuth.

**5. OTHER TOPICS 12**

Photogrammetry - Introduction - Terrestial and aerial Photographs - Stereoscopy - Parallax - Electromagnetic distance measurement - Carrier waves - Principles - Instruments - Trilateration - Hydrographic Surveying - Tides - MSL - Sounding methods - Location of soundings and methods - Three point problem - Strength of fix - Sextants and station pointer - River surveys - Measurement of current and discharge - Cartography - Cartographic concepts and techniques - Cadastral surveying - Definition - Uses - Legal values - Scales and accuracies.

**TOTAL : 45**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Bannister A. and Raymond S., Surveying, ELBS, Sixth Edition, 1992.

2. Punmia B.C., Surveying, Vols. I, II and III, Laxmi Publications, 1989.

**REFERENCES**

1. Clark D., Plane and Geodetic Surveying, Vols. I and II, C.B.S. Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, Sixth Edition, 1971.

2. James M.Anderson and Edward M.Mikhail, Introduction to Surveying, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985.

3. Wolf P.R., Elements of Photogrammetry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Second Edition, 1986.

4. Robinson A.H., Sale R.D. Morrison J.L. and Muehrche P.C., Elements of Cartography, John Wiley and Sons, New York, Fifth Edition, 1984.

5. Heribert Kahmen and Wolfgang Faig, Surveying, Walter de Gruyter, 1995.

6. Kanetkar T.P., Surveying and Levelling, Vols. I and II, United Book Corporation, Pune, 1994.

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