ME 1211 APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS 3 1 0 100

OBJECTIVES

i. To expose the fundamentals of thermodynamics and to be able to use it in accounting for the bulk behaviour of the sample physical systems.

ii. To integrate the basic concepts into various thermal applications like IC engines, gas turbines, steam boiler, steam turbine, compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning.

iii. To enlighten the various modes of heat transfer and their engineering applications.

(Use of standard steam tables, refrigeration tables and heat transfer data book are

permitted)

1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 12

Classical approach: Thermodynamic systems – Boundary - Control volume - System and surroundings – Universe – Properties - State-process – Cycle – Equilibrium -

Work and heat transfer – Point and path functions - First law of thermodynamics for open and closed systems - First law applied to a control volume - SFEE equations [steady flow energy equation] - Second law of thermodynamics - Heat engines - Refrigerators and heat pumps - Carnot cycle - Carnot theorem - Clausius inequality - Concept of entropy - Principle of increase of entropy - Basic thermodynamic relations.

2. IC ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES 8

Air standard cycles: Otto, diesel and dual cycles and comparison of efficiency - Working Principle of four stroke and two stroke engines - Working principle of spark ignition and compression ignition engines - Applications of IC engines - Normal and abnormal combustion - Working principle of four stroke and two stroke engines - Working principle of spark ignition and compression ignition engines - Applications of IC engines.

Open and closed cycle gas turbines – Ideal and actual cycles - Brayton cycle - Cycle with reheat, intercooling and regeneration – Applications of gas turbines for aviation and power generation.

3. STEAM BOILERS AND TURBINES 8

Formation of steam - Properties of steam – Use of steam tables and charts – Steam power cycle (Rankine) - Modern features of high-pressure boilers – Mountings and accessories – Testing of boilers.

Steam turbines: Impulse and reaction principle – Velocity diagrams – Compounding and governing methods of steam turbines (qualitative treatment only) - Layout diagram and working principle of a steam power plant.

4. COMPRESSORS, REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING 8

Positive displacement compressors – Reciprocating compressors – Indicated power – Clearance volume – Various efficiencies – Clearance ratio - Volume rate - Conditions for perfect and imperfect intercooling - Multi stage with intercooling – Rotary positive displacement compressors – Construction and working principle of centrifugal and axial flow compressors.

Unit of refrigeration - Basic functional difference between refrigeration and air conditioning – Various methods of producing refrigerating effects (RE) – Vapour compression cycle: P-H and T-S diagram - Saturation cycles - Effect of subcooling and super heating - (qualitative treatment only) - Airconditioning systems – Basic psychrometry - Simple psychrometric processes - Types of airconditioning systems -Selection criteria for a particular application (qualitative treatment only).

5. HEAT TRANSFER 9

One-dimensional Heat Conduction: Plane wall – Cylinder – Sphere - Composite walls – Critical thickness of insulation –Heat transfer through extended surfaces (simple fins).

Convection: Free convection and forced convection - Internal and external flow -Empirical relations - Determination of convection heat transfer co-efficient by using Dittus–Baetter equation.

Radiation: Black–Gray bodies - Radiation Shape Factor (RSF) - Cooling of electronic components: Thermoelectric cooling – Chip cooling.

L = 45 T = 15 Total = 60

TEXT BOOKS

1. P.K. Nag, ‘Basic and Applied Engineering Thermodynamics’, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2002.

2. B.K. Sachdeva, ‘Fundamentals of Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer (SI Units)’, New Age International (P) Limited, Chennai, 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Rogers and Mayhew, ‘Engineering Thermodynamics – Work and Heat Transfer’, Addision Wesley, New Delhi, 1999.

2. Eastop and McConkey, ‘Applied Thermodynamics’, Addison Wesley, New Delhi. 1999.

3. M.L. Mathur and F.S. Metha, ‘Thermal Engineering’, Jain Brothers, New Delhi, 1997.

4 B.K. Sankaar, ‘Thermal Enginerring’, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1998.

OBJECTIVES

i. To expose the fundamentals of thermodynamics and to be able to use it in accounting for the bulk behaviour of the sample physical systems.

ii. To integrate the basic concepts into various thermal applications like IC engines, gas turbines, steam boiler, steam turbine, compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning.

iii. To enlighten the various modes of heat transfer and their engineering applications.

(Use of standard steam tables, refrigeration tables and heat transfer data book are

permitted)

1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 12

Classical approach: Thermodynamic systems – Boundary - Control volume - System and surroundings – Universe – Properties - State-process – Cycle – Equilibrium -

Work and heat transfer – Point and path functions - First law of thermodynamics for open and closed systems - First law applied to a control volume - SFEE equations [steady flow energy equation] - Second law of thermodynamics - Heat engines - Refrigerators and heat pumps - Carnot cycle - Carnot theorem - Clausius inequality - Concept of entropy - Principle of increase of entropy - Basic thermodynamic relations.

2. IC ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES 8

Air standard cycles: Otto, diesel and dual cycles and comparison of efficiency - Working Principle of four stroke and two stroke engines - Working principle of spark ignition and compression ignition engines - Applications of IC engines - Normal and abnormal combustion - Working principle of four stroke and two stroke engines - Working principle of spark ignition and compression ignition engines - Applications of IC engines.

Open and closed cycle gas turbines – Ideal and actual cycles - Brayton cycle - Cycle with reheat, intercooling and regeneration – Applications of gas turbines for aviation and power generation.

3. STEAM BOILERS AND TURBINES 8

Formation of steam - Properties of steam – Use of steam tables and charts – Steam power cycle (Rankine) - Modern features of high-pressure boilers – Mountings and accessories – Testing of boilers.

Steam turbines: Impulse and reaction principle – Velocity diagrams – Compounding and governing methods of steam turbines (qualitative treatment only) - Layout diagram and working principle of a steam power plant.

4. COMPRESSORS, REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING 8

Positive displacement compressors – Reciprocating compressors – Indicated power – Clearance volume – Various efficiencies – Clearance ratio - Volume rate - Conditions for perfect and imperfect intercooling - Multi stage with intercooling – Rotary positive displacement compressors – Construction and working principle of centrifugal and axial flow compressors.

Unit of refrigeration - Basic functional difference between refrigeration and air conditioning – Various methods of producing refrigerating effects (RE) – Vapour compression cycle: P-H and T-S diagram - Saturation cycles - Effect of subcooling and super heating - (qualitative treatment only) - Airconditioning systems – Basic psychrometry - Simple psychrometric processes - Types of airconditioning systems -Selection criteria for a particular application (qualitative treatment only).

5. HEAT TRANSFER 9

One-dimensional Heat Conduction: Plane wall – Cylinder – Sphere - Composite walls – Critical thickness of insulation –Heat transfer through extended surfaces (simple fins).

Convection: Free convection and forced convection - Internal and external flow -Empirical relations - Determination of convection heat transfer co-efficient by using Dittus–Baetter equation.

Radiation: Black–Gray bodies - Radiation Shape Factor (RSF) - Cooling of electronic components: Thermoelectric cooling – Chip cooling.

L = 45 T = 15 Total = 60

TEXT BOOKS

1. P.K. Nag, ‘Basic and Applied Engineering Thermodynamics’, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2002.

2. B.K. Sachdeva, ‘Fundamentals of Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer (SI Units)’, New Age International (P) Limited, Chennai, 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Rogers and Mayhew, ‘Engineering Thermodynamics – Work and Heat Transfer’, Addision Wesley, New Delhi, 1999.

2. Eastop and McConkey, ‘Applied Thermodynamics’, Addison Wesley, New Delhi. 1999.

3. M.L. Mathur and F.S. Metha, ‘Thermal Engineering’, Jain Brothers, New Delhi, 1997.

4 B.K. Sankaar, ‘Thermal Enginerring’, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1998.

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