EE 1401 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL 3 1 0 100

AIM

To become familiar with the preparatory work necessary for meeting the next day’s operation and the various control actions to be implemented on the system to meet the minute-to-minute variation of system load.

OBJECTIVES

i. To get an overview of system operation and control.

ii. To understand & model power-frequency dynamics and to design power-frequency controller.

iii. To understand & model reactive power-voltage interaction and

different methods of control for maintaining voltage profile against varying system load.

1. INTRODUCTION 9

System load variation: System load characteristics, load curves - daily, weekly and

annual, load-duration curve, load factor, diversity factor. Reserve requirements: Installed reserves, spinning reserves, cold reserves, hot reserves. Overview of system operation: Load forecasting, unit commitment, load dispatching. Overview of system control: Governor control, LFC, EDC, AVR, system voltage control, security control.

2. REAL POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL 8

Fundamentals of speed governing mechanism and modeling: Speed-load characteristics – Load sharing between two synchronous machines in parallel; concept of control area, LFC control of a single-area system: Static and dynamic analysis of uncontrolled and controlled cases, Economic Dispatch Control. Multi-area systems: Two-area system modeling; static analysis, uncontrolled case; tie line with frequency bias control of two-area system derivation, state variable model.

3. REACTIVE POWER–VOLTAGE CONTROL 9

Typical excitation system, modeling, static and dynamic analysis, stability compensation; generation and absorption of reactive power: Relation between voltage, power and reactive power at a node; method of voltage control: Injection of reactive power. Tap-changing transformer, numerical problems - System level control using generator voltage magnitude setting, tap setting of OLTC transformer and MVAR injection of switched capacitors to maintain acceptable voltage profile and to minimize transmission loss.

4. UNIT COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH 9

Statement of Unit Commitment (UC) problem; constraints in UC: spinning reserve, thermal unit constraints, hydro constraints, fuel constraints and other constraints; UC solution methods: Priority-list methods, forward dynamic programming approach, numerical problems only in priority-list method using full-load average production cost.

Incremental cost curve, co-ordination equations without loss and with loss, solution by direct method and λ-iteration method. (No derivation of loss coefficients.) Base point and participation factors. Economic dispatch controller added to LFC control.

5. COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS 10

Energy control centre: Functions – Monitoring, data acquisition and control. System hardware configuration – SCADA and EMS functions: Network topology determination, state estimation, security analysis and control. Various operating states: Normal, alert, emergency, inextremis and restorative. State transition diagram showing various state transitions and control strategies.

L = 45 T = 15 Total = 60

TEXT BOOKS

1. Olle. I. Elgerd, ‘Electric Energy Systems Theory – An Introduction’, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, Second Edition, 2003.

2. Allen.J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg, ‘Power Generation, Operation and Control’, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

3. P. Kundur, ‘Power System Stability & Control’, McGraw Hill Publications, USA, 1994.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, ‘Modern Power System Analysis’, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2003.

2. L.L. Grigsby, ‘The Electric Power Engineering, Hand Book’, CRC Press & IEEE Press, 2001.

AIM

To become familiar with the preparatory work necessary for meeting the next day’s operation and the various control actions to be implemented on the system to meet the minute-to-minute variation of system load.

OBJECTIVES

i. To get an overview of system operation and control.

ii. To understand & model power-frequency dynamics and to design power-frequency controller.

iii. To understand & model reactive power-voltage interaction and

different methods of control for maintaining voltage profile against varying system load.

1. INTRODUCTION 9

System load variation: System load characteristics, load curves - daily, weekly and

annual, load-duration curve, load factor, diversity factor. Reserve requirements: Installed reserves, spinning reserves, cold reserves, hot reserves. Overview of system operation: Load forecasting, unit commitment, load dispatching. Overview of system control: Governor control, LFC, EDC, AVR, system voltage control, security control.

2. REAL POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL 8

Fundamentals of speed governing mechanism and modeling: Speed-load characteristics – Load sharing between two synchronous machines in parallel; concept of control area, LFC control of a single-area system: Static and dynamic analysis of uncontrolled and controlled cases, Economic Dispatch Control. Multi-area systems: Two-area system modeling; static analysis, uncontrolled case; tie line with frequency bias control of two-area system derivation, state variable model.

3. REACTIVE POWER–VOLTAGE CONTROL 9

Typical excitation system, modeling, static and dynamic analysis, stability compensation; generation and absorption of reactive power: Relation between voltage, power and reactive power at a node; method of voltage control: Injection of reactive power. Tap-changing transformer, numerical problems - System level control using generator voltage magnitude setting, tap setting of OLTC transformer and MVAR injection of switched capacitors to maintain acceptable voltage profile and to minimize transmission loss.

4. UNIT COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH 9

Statement of Unit Commitment (UC) problem; constraints in UC: spinning reserve, thermal unit constraints, hydro constraints, fuel constraints and other constraints; UC solution methods: Priority-list methods, forward dynamic programming approach, numerical problems only in priority-list method using full-load average production cost.

Incremental cost curve, co-ordination equations without loss and with loss, solution by direct method and λ-iteration method. (No derivation of loss coefficients.) Base point and participation factors. Economic dispatch controller added to LFC control.

5. COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS 10

Energy control centre: Functions – Monitoring, data acquisition and control. System hardware configuration – SCADA and EMS functions: Network topology determination, state estimation, security analysis and control. Various operating states: Normal, alert, emergency, inextremis and restorative. State transition diagram showing various state transitions and control strategies.

L = 45 T = 15 Total = 60

TEXT BOOKS

1. Olle. I. Elgerd, ‘Electric Energy Systems Theory – An Introduction’, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, Second Edition, 2003.

2. Allen.J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg, ‘Power Generation, Operation and Control’, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

3. P. Kundur, ‘Power System Stability & Control’, McGraw Hill Publications, USA, 1994.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, ‘Modern Power System Analysis’, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2003.

2. L.L. Grigsby, ‘The Electric Power Engineering, Hand Book’, CRC Press & IEEE Press, 2001.

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