**EI 1362 MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY 0 0 3 100**

**AIM**

The aim of this lab is to fortify the students with an adequate work experience in the measurement of different quantities and also the expertise in handling the instruments involved.

**OBJECTIVE**

To train the students in the measurement of displacement, resistance, inductance, torque and angle etc., and to give exposure to AC, DC bridges and transient measurement.

1. Study of displacement and pressure transducers

2. AC bridges.

3. DC bridges.

4. Instrumentation amplifiers.

5. A/D and D/A converters.

6. Study of transients.

7. Calibration of single-

phase energy meter.

8. Calibration of current transformer.

9. Measurement of three phase power and power factor.

10. Measurement of iron loss.

**P = 45, Total = 45**

**Detailed Syllabus**

**1(a) Study of Displacement Transducer - LVDT**

**Aim**

To study the operation of LVDT

**Objectives**

1. To study the basic principle of LVDT.

2. Study of signal conditioning circuit.

3. Study of LVDT as transducer.

**Exercise**

1. Draw the characteristic curve for a given LVDT.

2. Find the residual voltage.

3. Fluid the non-electrical quantity displacement interms of voltage.

**Equipment**

1. LVDT kit – 1 No

2. Multimeter – 1 No

**1(b) Study of Pressure Transducer**

**Aim**

To study the operation of bourdon tube

**Objectives**

1. To study the basic principle of Bourdon tube.

2. Study of Bourdon tube as transducer.

**Exercise**

1. Draw the characteristic curve for a given Bourdon tube i.e. pressure vs. o/p (V or I).

2. Measure the non-electrical quantity pressure interms of voltage or current.

**Equipment**

1. Bourdon pressure transducer kit – 1 No

2. Foot pump – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

4. Multimeter – 1 No

**2. AC BRIDGES**

**a) Maxwell’s Inductance – Capacitance Bridge**

**Aim**

To find the unknown inductance and Q factor of a given coil.

**Objective**

1. To find the unknown inductance of the given coil using bridge circuit.

2. To study that Maxwell inductance, capacitance bridge is suitable for the

measurement of law Q coils.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters.

2. Fluid Q factor of the coil.

3. Fluid unknown Inductance.

**Equipment**

1. Maxwell’s inductance Capacitance Bridge kit – 1 No

2. Multimeter – 1 No

3. Unknown Inductance – 1 No

**b) Schering Bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the unknown capacitance using Schering bridge.

**Objective**

1. To measure the unknown capacitance.

2. To study about dissipation factor.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters.

2. Find the dissipation factor.

3. Fluid the unknown capacitance.

**Equipment**

1. Schering Bridge kit – 1 No

2. Multimeter – 1 No

3. Unknown capacitance – 1 No

**3. DC Bridges**

**a) Wheat Stone Bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the given medium resistance using Wheatstone Bridge.

**Objective**

1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalanced condition.

2. To study the sensitivity of bridge.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge for the given parameters.

2. Find the unknown resistance.

3. Find the sensitivity of Bridge.

**Equipment**

1. Wheat stone Bridge kit – 1 No

2. Unknown resistance – 1 No

3. Multimeter – 1 No

**b) Kelvin’s Double bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the given low resistance using Kelvin’s double bridge method.

**Objective**

1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalance condition.

2. To study the sensitivity of bridge.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge for the given parameters.

2. Find the unknown low resistance.

3. Find the sensitivity of bridge.

**Equipment**

1. Kelvin Double bridge kit – 1 No

2. Unknown resistance – 1 No

3. Multimeter – 1 No

**4. Instrumentation Amplifier**

**Aim**

To study the working of instrumentation amplifier.

**Objective**

1. To study the characteristic of operational amplifier.

2. To study the use of operational amplifier as instrumentation amplifier.

**Exercise**

1. Measure the output voltage for varying input voltage.

2. Calculate the output voltage theoretically.

3. Calculate the error.

**Equipment**

1. Operational Amplifier – 1 No

2. Resistors – 1 No

3. RPS – 1 No

4. Voltmeter – 1 No

5. Multimeter – 1 No

**5(a) A/D Converter**

**Aim**

To design and test a 4 bit A/D converter.

1. Successive approximation type

2. Ramp type

**Objective**

1. To study the converstion of analog I/P voltage to digital o/p volage.

2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier

**Exercise**

1. Given 4 bit analog input is converterd to digital output

2. Verify the practical output with theoretical output

**Equipment**

1. IC 741 – 1 No

2. DC trainer kit – 1 No

3. RPS – 1 No

4. Resistor – 1 No

5. CRO – 1 No

**(b) D/A Converter**

**Aim**

To design and test a 4 bit D/A converter

1. Weighted resistor technique

2. R-2R ladder network

**Objective**

1. To study the conversion of binary voltage to analog o/p voltage

2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier

**Exercise**

1. Given 4 bit binary input is converted to analog output

2. Verify the practical o/p with theoretical o/p

**Experiment**

1. IC 741 – 1 No

2. DC Trainer kit – 1 No

3. RPS – 1 No

4. Resistor – 1 No

5. CRO – 1 No

**6. Study of transients**

**Aim**

To study the transient response of the given system

**Objective**

1. To study the transient behaviour of the given system

2. To study the effects of transients

**Exercise**

1. Draw the response curve for the given system

2. Find the time when the error is minimum

**Equipment**

1. Resistance – 1 No

2. Capacitance – 1 No

3. RPS – 1 No

4. Voltmeter – 1 No

5. Multimeter – 1 No

**7. Calibration of single-phase energy meter**

**Aim**

To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power factors

**Objectives**

1. To study the working of energy meter

2. Too accurately calibrate the meter at unity and other power factor

3. To study the % of errors for the given energy meters

**Exercise**

1. Measure the experimental energy consumed

2. Calculate the theoretical energy

3. Calculate the percentage of error

4. Draw the calibration curve

**Equipment**

1. Energy meter – 1 No

2. Wattmeter – 1 No

3. Stop watch – 1 No

4. M.I Ammeter – 1 No

5. M.I Voltmeter – 1 No

**8. Calibration of current transformer**

**Aim**

To study the working of current transformer

**Objective**

1. To study the current transformation concept

2. To study the efficiency of a given current transformer

3. To study the loss components in the circuit

**Exercise**

1. Draw the curve primary current Vs secondary current

2. Observe the o/p for lamp load

3. Calculate the efficiency

**Equipment**

1. Current Transformer – 1 No

2. Lamp Load – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

4. Ammeter – 1 No

**9. Measurement of 3 Phase Power And Power Factor**

**Aim**

To conduct a suitable experiment on a 3-phase load connected in star or delta to measure the three phase power and power factor using 2 wattmeter method.

**Objectives**

1. To study the working of wattmeter

2. To accurately measure the 3 phase power

3. To accurately measure the powerfactor

4. To study the concept of star connected load and delta connected load

**Exercise**

1. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive inductive load.

2. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive capacitive load.

**Equipment**

1. 3 phase Auto transformer – 1 No

2. M.I Ammeter – 1 No

3. M.I Voltmeter – 1 No

4. Wattmeter – 1 No

**10. Measurement of Iron Loss (Maxwell Bridge)**

**Aim**

To determine the iron losses in magnetic material using bridge method

**Objective**

1. To study about hysterisis loss

2. To study about eddy current loss

**Exercise**

1. Measure the current

2. Calculate iron loss

3. Calculate AC permeability

4. Draw phasor diagram

**Equipment**

1. Maxwell bridge set up – 1 No

2. Ring specimen – 1 No

3. Ammeter – 1 No

4. Galvanometer – 1 No

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