EC1019 RADAR AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS 3 0 0 100

AIM

To make the student understand the principles of Radar and its use in military and civilian environment

Also to make the student familiar with navigational aids available for navigation of aircrafts and ships.

OBJECTIVES

• To derive and discuss the Range equation and the nature of detection.

• To apply doppler principle to radars and hence detect moving targets, cluster, also to understand tracking radars

• To refresh principles of antennas and propagation as related to radars, also study of transmitters and receivers.

• To understand principles of navigation,

in addition to approach and landing aids as related to navigation

• To understand navigation of ships from shore to shore.

UNIT I 9

Introduction to Radar

Basic Radar –The simple form of the Radar Equation- Radar Block Diagram- Radar Frequencies –Applications of Radar – The Origins of Radar

The Radar Equation

Introduction- Detection of Signals in Noise- Receiver Noise and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio-Probability Density Functions- Probabilities of Detection and False Alarm- Integration of Radar Pulses- Radar Cross Section of Targets- Radar cross Section Fluctuations- Transmitter Power-Pulse Repetition Frequency- Antenna Parameters-System losses – Other Radar Equation Considerations

UNIT II 9

MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar

Introduction to Doppler and MTI Radar- Delay –Line Cancelers- Staggered Pulse Repetition Frequencies –Doppler Filter Banks - Digital MTI Processing - Moving Target Detector - Limitations to MTI Performance - MTI from a Moving Platform (AMIT) - Pulse Doppler Radar – Other Doppler Radar Topics- Tracking with Radar –Monopulse Tracking –Conical Scan and Sequential Lobing - Limitations to Tracking Accuracy - Low-Angle Tracking - Tracking in Range - Other Tracking Radar Topics -Comparison of Trackers - Automatic Tracking with Surveillance Radars (ADT).

UNIT III 9

Detection of Signals in Noise –Introduction – Matched –Filter Receiver –Detection Criteria – Detectors –-Automatic Detector - Integrators - Constant-False-Alarm Rate Receivers - The Radar operator - Signal Management - Propagation Radar Waves - Atmospheric Refraction -Standard propagation - Nonstandard Propagation - The Radar Antenna - Reflector Antennas - Electronically Steered Phased Array Antennas - Phase Shifters - Frequency-Scan Arrays

Radar Transmitters- Introduction –Linear Beam Power Tubes - Solid State RF Power Sources - Magnetron - Crossed Field Amplifiers - Other RF Power Sources - Other aspects of Radar Transmitter.

Radar Receivers - The Radar Receiver - Receiver noise Figure - Superheterodyne Receiver - Duplexers and Receiver Protectors- Radar Displays.

UNIT IV 9

Introduction - Introduction - Four methods of Navigation .

Radio Direction Finding - The Loop Antenna - Loop Input Circuits - An Aural Null Direction Finder - The Goniometer - Errors in Direction Finding - Adcock Direction Finders - Direction Finding at Very High Frequencies - Automatic Direction Finders - The Commutated Aerial Direction Finder - Range and Accuracy of Direction Finders

Radio Ranges - The LF/MF Four course Radio Range - VHF Omni Directional Range(VOR) - VOR Receiving Equipment - Range and Accuracy of VOR - Recent Developments.

Hyperbolic Systems of Navigation (Loran and Decca) - Loran-A - Loran-A Equipment - Range and precision of Standard Loran - Loran-C - The Decca Navigation System - Decca Receivers - Range and Accuracy of Decca - The Omega System

UNIT V 9

DME and TACAN - Distance Measuring Equipment - Operation of DME - TACAN - TACAN Equipment

Aids to Approach and Landing - Instrument Landing System - Ground Controlled Approach System - Microwave Landing System(MLS)

Doppler Navigation - The Doppler Effect - Beam Configurations -Doppler Frequency Equations - Track Stabilization - Doppler Spectrum - Components of the Doppler Navigation System - Doppler range Equation - Accuracy of Doppler Navigation Systems.

Inertial Navigation - Principles of Operation - Navigation Over the Earth - Components of an Inertial Navigation System - Earth Coordinate Mechanization - Strapped-Down Systems - Accuracy of Inertial Navigation Systems.

Satellite Navigation System - The Transit System - Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS)

TOTAL : 45

TEXTBOOK

1. Merrill I. Skolnik ," Introduction to Radar Systems", Tata McGraw-Hill (3rd Edition) 2003

REFERENCES

1. Peyton Z. Peebles:, "Radar Principles", Johnwiley, 2004

2. J.C Toomay, " Principles of Radar", 2nd Edition –PHI, 2004

AIM

To make the student understand the principles of Radar and its use in military and civilian environment

Also to make the student familiar with navigational aids available for navigation of aircrafts and ships.

OBJECTIVES

• To derive and discuss the Range equation and the nature of detection.

• To apply doppler principle to radars and hence detect moving targets, cluster, also to understand tracking radars

• To refresh principles of antennas and propagation as related to radars, also study of transmitters and receivers.

• To understand principles of navigation,

in addition to approach and landing aids as related to navigation

• To understand navigation of ships from shore to shore.

UNIT I 9

Introduction to Radar

Basic Radar –The simple form of the Radar Equation- Radar Block Diagram- Radar Frequencies –Applications of Radar – The Origins of Radar

The Radar Equation

Introduction- Detection of Signals in Noise- Receiver Noise and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio-Probability Density Functions- Probabilities of Detection and False Alarm- Integration of Radar Pulses- Radar Cross Section of Targets- Radar cross Section Fluctuations- Transmitter Power-Pulse Repetition Frequency- Antenna Parameters-System losses – Other Radar Equation Considerations

UNIT II 9

MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar

Introduction to Doppler and MTI Radar- Delay –Line Cancelers- Staggered Pulse Repetition Frequencies –Doppler Filter Banks - Digital MTI Processing - Moving Target Detector - Limitations to MTI Performance - MTI from a Moving Platform (AMIT) - Pulse Doppler Radar – Other Doppler Radar Topics- Tracking with Radar –Monopulse Tracking –Conical Scan and Sequential Lobing - Limitations to Tracking Accuracy - Low-Angle Tracking - Tracking in Range - Other Tracking Radar Topics -Comparison of Trackers - Automatic Tracking with Surveillance Radars (ADT).

UNIT III 9

Detection of Signals in Noise –Introduction – Matched –Filter Receiver –Detection Criteria – Detectors –-Automatic Detector - Integrators - Constant-False-Alarm Rate Receivers - The Radar operator - Signal Management - Propagation Radar Waves - Atmospheric Refraction -Standard propagation - Nonstandard Propagation - The Radar Antenna - Reflector Antennas - Electronically Steered Phased Array Antennas - Phase Shifters - Frequency-Scan Arrays

Radar Transmitters- Introduction –Linear Beam Power Tubes - Solid State RF Power Sources - Magnetron - Crossed Field Amplifiers - Other RF Power Sources - Other aspects of Radar Transmitter.

Radar Receivers - The Radar Receiver - Receiver noise Figure - Superheterodyne Receiver - Duplexers and Receiver Protectors- Radar Displays.

UNIT IV 9

Introduction - Introduction - Four methods of Navigation .

Radio Direction Finding - The Loop Antenna - Loop Input Circuits - An Aural Null Direction Finder - The Goniometer - Errors in Direction Finding - Adcock Direction Finders - Direction Finding at Very High Frequencies - Automatic Direction Finders - The Commutated Aerial Direction Finder - Range and Accuracy of Direction Finders

Radio Ranges - The LF/MF Four course Radio Range - VHF Omni Directional Range(VOR) - VOR Receiving Equipment - Range and Accuracy of VOR - Recent Developments.

Hyperbolic Systems of Navigation (Loran and Decca) - Loran-A - Loran-A Equipment - Range and precision of Standard Loran - Loran-C - The Decca Navigation System - Decca Receivers - Range and Accuracy of Decca - The Omega System

UNIT V 9

DME and TACAN - Distance Measuring Equipment - Operation of DME - TACAN - TACAN Equipment

Aids to Approach and Landing - Instrument Landing System - Ground Controlled Approach System - Microwave Landing System(MLS)

Doppler Navigation - The Doppler Effect - Beam Configurations -Doppler Frequency Equations - Track Stabilization - Doppler Spectrum - Components of the Doppler Navigation System - Doppler range Equation - Accuracy of Doppler Navigation Systems.

Inertial Navigation - Principles of Operation - Navigation Over the Earth - Components of an Inertial Navigation System - Earth Coordinate Mechanization - Strapped-Down Systems - Accuracy of Inertial Navigation Systems.

Satellite Navigation System - The Transit System - Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS)

TOTAL : 45

TEXTBOOK

1. Merrill I. Skolnik ," Introduction to Radar Systems", Tata McGraw-Hill (3rd Edition) 2003

REFERENCES

1. Peyton Z. Peebles:, "Radar Principles", Johnwiley, 2004

2. J.C Toomay, " Principles of Radar", 2nd Edition –PHI, 2004

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