EC1012 Solid State Electronic Devices Syllabus

EC1012 SOLID STATE ELECTRONIC DEVICES 3 0 0 100

AIM
To have fundamental knowledge about structure of devices, VI characteristics of devices like PN Junction diode, Zener diode, MOSFET, BJT and Opto electronic.

OBJECTIVES:

• To learn crystal structures of elements used for fabrication of semiconductor devices.
• To study energy band structure of semiconductor devices.
• To understand fermi levels, movement of charge carriers, Diffusion current and Drift current.
• To study behavior of semiconductor junction under different biasing conditions. Fabrication of different semiconductor devices, Varactor diode, Zener diode, Schottky diode, BJT, MOSFET, etc.
• To study the VI Characteristics of devices and their limitations in factors like current, power frequency.
• To learn photoelectric effect and fabrication of opto electronic devices.

UNIT I CRYSTAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SEMICONDUCTORS 9
Semiconductor materials- Periodic Structures- Crystal Lattices- Cubic lattices –
Planes and Directions-The Diamond lattice- Bulk Crystal Growth-Starting Materials-Growth of Single Crystal lngots-Wafers-Doping- Epitaxial Growth –Lattice Matching in Epitaxial Growth –Vapor –Phase Epitaxy-Atoms and Electrons-Introduction to Physical Models-Experimental Observations-The Photoelectric Effect-Atomic spectra-The Bohr model- Quantum Mechanics –Probability and the Uncertainty Principle-The Schrodinger Wave Equation –Potential Well Equation –Potential well Problem-Tunneling.

UNIT II ENERGY BANDS AND CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS 9
Bonding Forces and Energy bands in Solids-Bonding Forces in Solids-Energy Bands-Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators – Direct and Indirect Semiconductors –Variation of Energy Bands with Alloy Composition-Charge Carriers in Semiconductors-Electrons and Holes-Effective Mass-Intrinsic Material-Extrinsic Material – Electrons and Holes in Quantum Wells-Carrier Concentrations-The Fermi Level-Electron and Hole Concentrations at Equilibrium-Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations-Compensation and Space Charge Neutrality-Drift of Carrier in Electric and Magnetic Fields conductivity and Mobility-Drift and Resistance –Effects of Temperature and Doping on Mobility-High –Field effects-The Hall Effect -invariance of the Fermi level at equilibrium -Excess Carrier in Semiconductors-Optical Absorption- Luminescence-Photoluminescence-Electro luminescence-Carrier Lifetime and Photoconductivity –Direct Recombination of Electrons and Holes – Indirect Recombination ; Trapping –Steady State Carrier Generation ; Quasi-Fermi Levels-Photoconductive Devices-Diffusion of Carriers-Diffusion of Processes-Diffusion and Drift of Carrier; Built-in Fields-Diffusion and Recombination; The Continuity Equation –Steady state Carrier Injection; Diffusion Length-The Haynes- Shockley Experiment –Gradients in the Quasi-Fermi levels.

UNIT III JUNCTIONS 9
Fabrication of P-N Junctions-Thermal Oxidation-Diffusion –Rapid Thermal Processing-Ion Implantation-Chemical Vapor Deposition Photolithography-Etching –Metallization-Equilibrium Conditions-The Contact Potential-Equilibrium Fermi Levels –Space Charge at a Junction-Forward –and Reverse –Biased Junctions; -Steady state conditions-Qualitative Description Of current flow at a junction-Carrier Injection-Reverse Bias-Reverse –Bias Breakdown-Zener Breakdown –Avalanche Breakdown-Rectifiers-The Breakdown Diode-Transient and AC Conditions –Time variation of stored charge-Reverse Recovery Transient –Switching Diodes –Capacitance of P-N Junctions-The Varactor Diode-Deviations from the Simple Theory-Effects of contact Potential on carrier injection-Recombination and Generation in the Transition Region-Ohmic Losses –Graded Junctions-Metal –Semiconductor Junctions-Schottky Barriers-Rectifying contacts-Ohmic Contacts-Typical Schottky Barriers-Hetrojunctions

UNIT IV THE METAL –SEMICONDUCTOR-FET 9
The GaAS MESFET-The High Electron Mobility Transistor –Short channel Effects-The Metal Insulator Semiconductor FET-Basic Operation and Fabrication –THE ideal MOS Capacitor-Effects of Real Surfaces-Threshold Voltage –MOS capacitance Measurements- current –Voltage Characteristics of MOS Gate Oxides -The MOS Field –Effect Transistor –Output characteristics-Transfer characteristics- Mobility Models-Short channel MOSFET I-V characteristics –Control of Threshold Voltage –Substrate Bias Effects-Sub threshold characteristics –Equivalent Circuit for the MOSFET-MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects-Drain –Induced Barrier Lowering –short channel and Narrow Width Effect-Gate –Induced Drain Leakage-BJT Fabrication –Minority carrier distribution and Terminal currents-Solution of the Diffusion Equation in the Base Region-Evaluation of the Terminal currents –Current Transfer Ratio-Generalized Biasing –The coupled –Diode Model-Charge control analysis-Switching –cut off –saturation-The switching cycle-Specifications for switching Transistors-other Important Effects-Drift in the base Narrowing –Avalanche Breakdown –Injection level; Thermal Effects-Base Resistance and Emitter Crowding – Gummel –Poon Model-Kirk Effect-Frequency Limitations of Transistors-Capacitance and Charging Times-Transit Time Effects-Webster Effect-High –Frequency Transistors - Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors.

UNIT V OPTOELCTRONIC DEVICES 9
Photodiodes-Current and Voltage in illuminated Junction-Solar Cells-Photo detectors-Noise and Bandwidth of Photo detectors-Light-Emitting Diodes-Light Emitting Materials-Fiber Optic Communications Multilayer Heterojunctions for LEDs- Lasers-Semiconductor lasers-Population Inversion at a Junction Emission Spectra for p-n junction-The Basic Semiconductor lasers-Materials for Semiconductor lasers-Integrated Circuits –Background –Advantages of Integration –Types of Integrated circuits-Monolithic and Hybrid Circuits-Evolution of Integrated Circuits-Monolithic Device Elements CMOS Process Integration –Silicon –on – Insulator (SOI)-Integration of other Circuit Elements –Charge Transfer Devices –Dynamic Effects in MOS capacitors –The basic CCD-Improvements on the Basic Structure –Applications of CCDs-Ultra Large –Scale Integration (ULSI) –Logic devices –Semiconductor Memories-Testing, bonding , and Packaging-Testing –Wire Bonding –Flip-flop Techniques-Packaging

TOTAL : 45
TEXT BOOK
1. Ben.G.Streetman & Sanjan Banerjee Solid State Electronic Devices (5th Edition) PHI Private Ltd, 2003

REFERENCES
1. Yannis Tsividis: Operation & Mode line of The MOS Transistor (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press, 1999
2. Nandita Das Gupta &Aamitava Das Gupta- Semiconductor Devices Modeling a Technology, PHI, 2004.

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