Read the following passage and answer the question given below:

    The heavy damage caused by the recent spell of rain has made the experts in highways put forward a strong case for the laying of cement concrete (CC) roads. They say that the advantages of CC roads far outstrip those of bituminous roads in cost, longevity, maintenance and riding comfort. They stress that while the Tamil Nadu government spends Rs.10crores for relaying the bituminous roads in Madras alone after every strong monsoon, the CC roads will last 40 years and require no maintenance. Moreover, cement is available in plenty now.
As Cement Concrete roads have a smooth surface, they provide better riding comfort and the consumption of fuel will be less. Visibility at night will be better. It will not disintegrate due to aging. Many experts say that the laying of CC roads on the international highways will be cheaper than the laying of bituminous roads.
Bituminous roads do not last long because water penetrates the bitumen layer and seeps into the cavities below, thus forming a film between the two. Later, when vehicles ply over the wet surface, the upper layer is stripped away and ‘pot holes’ are formed. But this does not happen on CC roads.
Cement Concrete roads have a few disadvantages. It is not easy to cut then open to lay electricity or telephone cables. During day-time, visibility is better on bituminous roads; on the other hand, on CC roads visibility is better at night. Joints pose a problem on CC roads and research is being done on how to avoid joints in them.

Answer the questions:

1.    Give the meaning of the following as used in the passage.
(a) Spell    (b) Longevity        (c) Seep

2.    Complete the following by adding not more than 15 words each.
(a) if the quality control staff are not strict when the CC roads are being laid…..
(b) Although the CC roads have a few disadvantages,

3.    Give short answers in not more than 15 words each.
(a) Why are bituminous roads no longer an economical proposition?
(b) Why is it necessary to relay the bituminous roads after the monsoon?
(c) Give two advantages oc CC roads.
(d) How are ‘pot-holes’ formed?

4.    State whether the following statements are true or false:
(a) The initial cost of laying CC roads in rural areas will be more than Rs. 15 lakhs per km.
(b) Bituminous roads have less life than the CC roads
(c) Now there are a few CC roads in Madras.
(d) At all times, the visibility on CC roads are better than the visibility on bituminous roads.

5.    Choose the best alternative.
(a)The root cause for stripping is
    (i) Poor supervision
    (ii) Lax quality control.
    (iii) Vehicles plying on wet surfaces.
    (iv) The water between the two layers of the road.
(b) How could CC roads reduce the fuel consumption?
    (i) Bumpy roads increase the fuel consumption.
    (ii) Riding comfort is directly related to fuel consumption.
    (iii) Visibility will be better at night.
    (iv) CC roads will not disintegrate due to ageing.
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